Chapter 5: Double Integration
Section 5.7: Double Integration in Polar Coordinates
Calculate the area that is inside the circle r=3 cosθ but outside the cardioid r=1+cosθ.
Figure 5.7.4(a) shows the circle r=3 cosθ (in black), the cardioid r=1+cosθ (in red), and the region whose area is to be calculated, (in green).
Figure 5.7.4(b) is an animation in which the two curves are drawn under the action of the slider in the animation toolbar. The polar angle appears above the vertical axis. Use this animation to infer the appropriate angles for the iterated double integral that follows.
Inspired by the animation in Figure 5.7.4(b), Figure 5.7.4(c) is a graph of r=3 cosθ and r=1+cosθ. It suggests that the two curves intersect at θ=±π/3. The shaded loop in Figure 5.7.4(a) is traced for θ∈−π/3, π/3.
use plots in
Figure 5.7.4(a) Region
Figure 5.7.4(b) Animation
Figure 5.7.4(c) Intersections
The area of the region shaded in green in Figure 5.7.4(a) is
∫−π/3π/3∫1+cosθ3 cosθr ⅆr ⅆθ = π
Maple Solution - Interactive
Tools≻Load Package: Student Multivariate Calculus
Access the MultiInt command via the Context Panel
Type the integrand, 1.
Context Panel: Student Multivariate Calculus≻Integrate≻Iterated
Fill in the fields of the two dialogs shown below. Note that the range for r is not completely visible.
Context Panel: Evaluate Integral
The task template in Table 5.7.4(a) can be used to visualize the region of integration over which a given iterated integral acts. Select an order of integration, and provide an integrand of 1 to compute area. Supply the limits of integration, and use the Exact button to obtain the value of the iterated integral, and the Draw Graphs button to obtain the two figures provided by the task template.
Calculus - Multivariate≻Integration≻Visualizing Regions of Integration≻Polar
Evaluate ∬RΨr,θ dA and Graph R
Area Element dA
r dr dθ
r dθ dr
Value of Integral
Table 5.7.4(a) Task template for visualizing a polar region of integration
The figure on the left is an animation that shows how the radial cone representing dθ traverses the region of integration. The figure on the right is a representation of the volume of a solid of height 1, with base the region of integration. Since the height is 1, the number computed for the volume is the same number as the area. If this figure is rotated and viewed from above, it appears to be a shaded version of the region of integration. These visual clues help to decide of the polar area has been properly identified and calculated.
The details of an interactive calculation of the required area appear in Table 5.7.4(b).
Tools≻Load Package: Student Calculus 1
Find the zeros of 3 cosθ=1+cosθ
Write the equation.
Student Calculus1≻Solve≻Find Roots
Complete the dialog as per Figure 5.7.4(d)
Figure 5.7.4(d) Roots dialog
Implement and evaluate the iterated integral
Calculus palette: Iterated double integral template
Context Panel: Evaluate and Display Inline
∫−π/3π/3∫1+cosθ3 cosθr ⅆr ⅆθ = π
Table 5.7.4(b) Details of the interactive calculation of the required area.
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