Math Software for Electrical Power Systems Engineers

# Math Software for Electrical Power Systems Engineers

From load flow analysis of power systems to transmission line simulation, Maple Flow provides a complete design calculation environment for common tasks performed by electrical power systems engineers.

### Electrical power systems engineers use Maple Flow for calculations, technical analyses, and compliance report generation

Power systems engineers are critical to power supply and generation. They work at utility companies, wind turbine manufacturers, as well as aerospace and defence companies. Electrical power systems engineers find fault failures in power networks, design substations, work on power system protection, do load flow analysis, protect against arc flashes and more.

These engineers need validated tools that help them solve complex problems – and a mathematics tool is central to this work. Math and data analysis tools may be used for simple design calculations, data analysis, and more intensive mathematical tasks.

Maplesoft has developed Maple Flow with features that specifically address the needs of electrical power systems engineers:

# Are You a Mathcad® User?

Find out why Power Systems Engineers like yourself are switching to Maple Flow

Maple Flow gives you a clean, uncluttered workspace that can combine live math, text, schematic diagrams and plots in a single document, allowing you to communicate your design specifications more effectively.

The professional-looking worksheets make it simple for reviewers to follow along with the equations, and are ideal for design certification or regulatory documentation for power utilities testing and energy compliance.

## Save time with the powerful mathematical features

Maple Flow offers over 5000 built-in mathematical functions and offers practical high-level tools for numeric and symbolic math, data analysis, and for presenting results.  Parameters, equations and calculations can be arranged in a single cohesive workflow, to solve simple and complex engineering problems.

• Numerically solve equations for transmission line voltage and current transients
• Symbolic and numeric methods for load flow analysis of power systems
• Power swing analysis for out-of-step protection with symbolic derivation and numeric solutions

Try Maple Flow:

## Reduce calculation risk by automating unit conversions and data imports

Power systems engineers often pull values from hardware databases and other sources, and run the risk of making unit conversion errors or manually copying in data from the wrong line of a list. Assigning units to parameters during calculations removes the risk of introducing unit conversion errors, and also acts as a check on the physical validity of the equations.

When working with relay settings, line impedances, resistances, and conductivity coefficients, Maple Flow lets you work smarter by offering:

• Built-in unit tracking. Units can be set at the point of defining parameters, and results will automatically show matching units based on previously stated attributes.
• Data connectivity features. You can import equations, values and results from databases, spreadsheets, and other design stages into a single calculation platform, and pass calculation results to other teams using flexible export formats.
• Automating repeatable tasks using scripting and command packages.

## Cable Ampacity using the Nehers-McGrath Method

Heat is generated when current flows through a cable. The ampacity of a cable is the amount of current a cable can carry without exceeding its temperature rating. Accurately estimating ampacity is critical to minimizing the total lifetime cost of a cable installation.

This application implements the Nehers-McGrath equations and cross-checks the results against those tabulated in the National Electrical Code (2017); the good agreement means that this worksheet can be the basis of more complex cable ampacity calculations.

Using numeric and symbolic techniques, this application uses Maple Flow’s built-in units system to show standard units throughout the calculations.

## Cross-Section of Metallic Tape for Substation Earthing

Substation earthing systems are a grid of buried conductors, known as an earth mat. The grounding of substations is very important for both personnel safety and to provide a discharge route for the overall power system.

This application calculates the cross-section of metallic tape to earth a conductor for a 110/30 kV substation.

Using Maple Flow, the application follows EN 50522:2010 and IEC 60287-3-1, and features natural math notation and units throughout the calculations.

The calculation worksheet can also be converted to an interactive application with buttons and sliders using Maple, and can be deployed to other teams using Maple Cloud.

## Arc Flash Calculation (IEEE 1584-2018)

An arc flash is a violent eruption of heat and light caused by an electrical explosion. Arc flashes can seriously injure electricians, with fierce burns posing a significant risk to life. Other hazards include shrapnel and a pressure wave (often called an arc blast). This Maple Flow application determines the minimum safe working distance from an arc flash, following the empirical methodology presented in IEEE 1584 - 2018. Specifically, the application calculates the

• intermediate average arcing current
• arcing current variation factor
• box size variation factor
• incident energy - amount of thermal energy on a surface at a specific distance
• arc flash boundary – the minimum distance from an arc flash to prevent 2nd degree burns