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# Section 1.5 The Algebra of Complex Numbers, Revisited

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COMPLEX ANALYSIS: Maple Worksheets,  2001
(c) John H. Mathews          Russell W. Howell

mathews@fullerton.edu     howell@westmont.edu

Complimentary software to accompany the textbook:

COMPLEX ANALYSIS: for Mathematics & Engineering, 4th Ed, 2001, ISBN: 0-7637-1425-9
Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.,      40  Tall  Pine  Drive,      Sudbury,  MA  01776

Tele.  (800) 832-0034;      FAX:  (508)  443-8000,      E-mail:  mkt@jbpub.com,      http://www.jbpub.com/

CHAPTER 1  COMPLEX NUMBERS

Section 1.5  The Algebra of Complex Numbers, Revisited

The real numbers are deficient in the sense that not all algebraic operations on them produce real numbers. Thus, for to make sense, we must lift our sights to the domain of complex numbers. Do complex numbers have this same deficiency? That is, if we are to make sense out of expressions like , must we appeal to yet another new number system? The answer to this question is no. It turns out that any reasonable algebraic operation we perform on complex numbers gives us complex numbers. In this respect, we say that the complex numbers are complete. Later we will learn how to evaluate intriguing algebraic expressions such as . For now we will be content to study integral powers and roots of complex numbers.

The n-th power of    is   .

Example 1.15, Page 31.
Show that    in two ways.

 > z := - sqrt(3) - I: `z ` = z; `Expand using Cartesian coordinates for z^3.`; w1 := z^3: `w1 ` = w1; w1 := evalc(z^3): `w1 ` = w1; ` `; r := abs(z): t := argument(z): `r ` = r, theta = t; `Expand using polar coordinates r^3 e^(I3t).`; w2 := r^3*exp(I*3*t): `w2 ` = w2; `Are they the same?`; w1 = w2; evalb(w1=w2);

Example 1.16, Page 32.   Evaluate   .

Solution.   = = = .

Extra Eample, Page 32.
Evaluate    in two ways.

 > z := - sqrt(3) - I:  `z ` = z; `Expand using Cartesian coordinates for z^(-6).`; w1 := z^(-6):  `w1 ` = w1; w1 := evalc(z^(-6)):  `w1 ` = w1; ` `; r := abs(z): t := argument(z): `r ` = r, theta = t; `Expand using polar coordinates r^-6 e^(-I6t).`; w2 := r^(-6)*exp(-I*6*t):  `w2 ` = w2; `Are they the same?`; w1 = w2; evalb(w1=w2);

An interesting application of the laws of exponents comes from putting the equation    in its polar form.  Doing so gives

=   .

which is known as De Moivre's formula, in honor of the French mathematician Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754).

Example 1.17, Page 32.
Use De Moivre's formula to show that
.

 > t:='t': z1 := cos(5*t) + I*sin(5*t); z2 := (cos(t) + I*sin(t))^5; z2 := evalc(z2); assume(t, real); u1 := Re(z1): u2 := Re(z2): `Equate the real parts.`; `Re(z1) = Re(z2)`; subs(t='t',u1) = subs(t='t',u2);

A key ingredient in determining roots of complex numbers turns out to be a corollary to the fundamental theorem of algebra. We will prove the theorem in Chapter 6. Our proofs must be independent of conclusions we derive here since we are going to make use of the corollary now.

Theorem 1.4 (Corollary to the fundamental theorem of algebra)

If is a polynomial, of degree , with complex coefficients, then the equation has precisely (not necessarily distinct) solutions.

Example 1.18, Page 33.   Factor the polynomial
.

 > P :='P': z :='z': P := z -> z^3 + (2-2*I)*z^2 + (-1-4*I)*z - 2: `P(z) ` = P(z); `P(z) ` = factor(P(z)); ` `; `P(z) = 0,  The solution set is =`, {solve(P(z)=0, z)};

Definition 1.12:  Primitive nth root

For any natural number , the value given by

= =

is called the primitive nth root of unith.

Example 1.19, Page 34.
Find all the solutions of the equation   .

 > z:='z': `Solutions of   z^8 = 1.`; ` `; solset := {solve(z^8 = 1, z)}: `Solutions ` = solset; pts := map(w->[Re(w),Im(w)], solset): plot(pts,  style=point, symbol=circle,  scaling=constrained, color=red,  labels=[`    x`,`y   `],  view=[-1.1..1.1,-1.1..1.1]);

Example 1.20, Page 35.
Find all the cube roots of   ,
i.e. find all the solutions to the equation
.

 > z :='z': `Solutions of   z^3 = 8i.`; ` `; solset := {solve(z^3 = 8*I, z)}: `Solutions ` = solset; pts := map(w->[Re(w),Im(w)], solset): plot(pts,  style=point, symbol=circle,  scaling=constrained, color=red,  labels=[`    x`,`y  `],  view=[-2.1..2.1,-2.1..2.1]);

Theorem 1.5 (Quadratic formula)  If   , then the solutin set for   is

,

where by    we mean all distinct square roots of the number inside the parenthesis.

Example 1.21, Page 35.  Find all solutions to the equation   .

 > z :='z': `Solutions of   z^2 +(1+i)z +5i = 0.`; ` `; solset := {solve(z^2 +(1+I)*z +5*I, z)}: `Solutions ` = solset; pts := map(w->[Re(w),Im(w)], solset): plot(pts,  style=point, symbol=circle,  scaling=constrained, color=red,  labels=[`    x`,`y  `],  view=[-2.1..2.1,-2.1..2.1]);

 >

End of Section 1.5.