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MapleSim Hydraulics Library from Modelon

Orifice N  Orifice with laminar/turbulent flow without cavitation

The Orifice N component describes the laminar/turbulent flow through an orifice if no cavitation occurs. The flow rate of the orifice is given by:

Δp=12Kρq2A2

K=k1+k2

Variables used in the above equations

Δp

pressure drop across orifice Pa

K

loss coefficient

ρ

mass density, from FluidProp kgm3

q

flow rate m3s

A

area of the orifice m2

k1

parameter of the orifice, describes laminar flow

k2

parameter of the orifice, describes turbulent flow, k2=1Cd2

Reynolds number

The equations are set up such that the pressure drop (Δp) will be calculated if the flow rate q is known. This approach can help with HWIL-simulations because no volumes are needed. The mass and flow forces are not included.

Related Components

Name

Description

Lam Res No States

Resistance with laminar flow.

Var Lam Res No States

Resistance with laminar flow and externally commanded conductance.

Orifice No States

The component, based on the loss coefficient K, describes both flow regimes: laminar for very small Reynolds numbers and turbulent for higher Reynolds numbers (default model).

Ori Poly No States

The component describes both flow regimes, using an interpolation polynomial.

Ori Cav No States

Orifice component checking for cavitation.

Sim Ori No States

Simple textbook component, using a constant discharge coefficient. It is valid for turbulent flow only; severe numerical problems for laminar flow.

Metering Ori No States

Metering Orifice (that is, model Orifice No States with variable diameter).

Two Orifices

Two orifices in series, one with variable the other with fixed flow area.

Restrictions[Basic]

Differences between basic models are shown by a figure.

Connections

Name

Description

Modelica ID

portA

Layout of port where oil flows into an element (0<mflow, pB<pA means 0<&Delta;p)

port_A

portB

Hydraulic port where oil leaves the component (mflow<0, pB<pA means 0<&Delta;p)

port_B

oil

 

oil

Parameters

Name

Default

Units

Description

Modelica ID

&Delta;Tsystem

0

K

Temperature offset from system temperature

dT_system

d

0.001

m

Orifice diameter

diameter

k1

10

 

Laminar part of orifice model

k1

k2

2

 

Turbulent part of orifice model, k2&equals;1Cd2

k2

See Also

Lam Res No States, Metering Ori No States, Ori Cav No States, Ori Poly No States, Orifice No States, Restrictions, Restrictions[Basic], Sim Ori No States, Two Orifices, Var Lam Res No States, MapleSim Hydraulics Library from Modelon Overview


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