stats[transform, standardscore]  replace each item by its standard score

Calling Sequence


stats[transform, standardscore[n_constraints]](data)
transform[standardscore[n_constraints]](data)


Parameters


n_constraints



(optional, default=0) use 0 for population, 1 for sample

data



statistical list





Description


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The function standardscore of the subpackage stats[transform, ...] replaces each item in data by its standard score.

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Standard scores are also known as zscores, or zscores.

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The quantity n_constraints is explained in more detail in the description of stats[describe,standarddeviation].

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The standard score is very useful in comparing distributions. For example, a student can compare her relative standing between two courses if she knows her mark, the courses averages and standard deviations.

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Results expressed in terms of standard score are also known as being expressed in standard units.

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By definition, the set of standard scores of a list of statistical data will have mean equal to 0 and standard deviation equal to 1.

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Missing items remain unchanged. Weighted data and class data are recognized.



Examples


Important: The stats package has been deprecated. Use the superseding package Statistics instead.
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 (1) 
The standard scores for the given data are
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 (2) 
Here is another way of computing the standard scores.
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 (3) 
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 (4) 
And here is a third way.
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 (5) 
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 (6) 
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 (7) 
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 (8) 


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