compute the Hermitian conjugate or Adjoint of a given mathematical object - Maple Help

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Physics[Dagger] - compute the Hermitian conjugate or Adjoint of a given mathematical object

Calling Sequence

Dagger(A)

Parameters

A

-

any mathematical expression

Description

• 

The Dagger command returns the Hermitian conjugate, also called adjoint, of its argument, so, for example, if A is a square matrix, then Dagger(A) computes the complex conjugate of the transpose of A. As a shortcut to Dagger(A) you can also use A^*.

• 

The %Dagger command is the inert form of Dagger; that is, it represents the same mathematical operation while displaying the operation unevaluated. To evaluate the operation, use the value command.

• 

The result returned by Dagger is built as follows:

  

- If A is Hermitian, then return A.

  

- If A is already the Dagger of B, then return B.

  

- If A is a (commutative) constant or a Bracket, then return the conjugate of A

  

- If A is a Bra or a Ket, then return the dual; that is, the corresponding Ket or Bra, respectively.

  

- If A is an Annihilation or a Creation operator, then return the corresponding Creation or Annihilation, respectively.

  

- If A is a Matrix, then return the conjugate of the transpose of A.

  

- If A is a sum of terms, then return the sum of the Dagger of each term.

  

- If A is a (noncommutative) product, then return the product of the Dagger of each factor, after reversing their order in the product.

  

- If A is d_, or dAlembertian, then return the operator applied to the Dagger of the first operand of A.

  

- If A is an object of the Physics package, such as Inverse, Trace, Dgamma, or KroneckerDelta, then return according to the properties of this object.

  

- Otherwise, return the operation unevaluated, Dagger(A).

Examples

withPhysics:

Setupmathematicalnotation=true

mathematicalnotation=true

(1)

BraA,n

An

(2)

Dagger

An

(3)

You can also use the inert form of Dagger by prefixing the command's name with %.

%Dagger

An

(4)

value

An

(5)

%DaggerBracketA,B

A|B

(6)

value

B|A

(7)

For Annihilation and Creation operators, Dagger return the dual, respectively.

am:=AnnihilationA,1

ama

(8)

ap:=CreationA,1

apa+

(9)

Daggeram

a+

(10)

Daggerap

a

(11)

As a shortcut to Dagger(ap) you can also use ap^*

ap%H

a

(12)

The Dagger of Dirac matrices

%DaggerDgamma1

γ1

(13)

value

γ1

(14)

As it happens with tensors of the Physics package, when the index has the value 0, it is automatically mapped into the spacetime dimension. So the gamma0 Dirac matrix is automatically represented by gamma4,

%DaggerDgamma0

γ4

(15)

value

γ4

(16)

For sums and products, Dagger maps itself over the operands, reversing the order of the arguments in the case of noncommutative products or scalar products. First set a prefix to identify noncommutative symbols.

Setupnoncommutativeprefix=Z

noncommutativeprefix=Z

(17)

CommutatorZ1,Z2

Z1,Z2

(18)

=expand

Z1,Z2=Z1Z2Z2Z1

(19)

Dagger

Z2,Z1=Z2Z1Z1Z2

(20)

Thus, the Dagger of an AntiCommutator of Hermitian operators is equal to itself (however, the product of two Hermitian operators is Hermitian only if they commute).

AntiCommutatorZ1,Z2

Z1,Z2+

(21)

=expand

Z1,Z2+=Z1Z2+Z2Z1

(22)

DaggerassumingHermitian

Z1,Z2+=Z1Z2+Z2Z1

(23)

In the generic, non-Hermitian case:

Dagger

Z1,Z2+=Z1Z2+Z2Z1

(24)

For linear operators, differential and others, Dagger is applied to the first operand.

Setupdiff=X

* Partial match of 'Physics:-diff' against keyword 'differentiationvariables'

Default differentiation variables for d_, D_ and dAlembertian are: X=x1,x2,x3,x4

Systems of spacetime Coordinates are: X=x1,x2,x3,x4

Default differentiation variables for d_, D_ and dAlembertian are: X=x1,x2,x3,x4

differentiationvariables=X

(25)

d_μZ1Xd_νZ2X+g_μ,νdAlembertianFX

μZ1XνZ2X+gμ,νFX

(26)

Dagger

νZ2XμZ1X+gμ,νFX&conjugate0;

(27)

See Also

Annihilation, AntiCommutator, Bra, Bracket, Commutator, Creation, d_, dAlembertian, g_, Ket, Physics, Physics conventions, Physics examples, Setup, value


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