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DifferentialGeometry

  

ExteriorDerivative

  

take the exterior derivative of a differential form

 

Calling Sequence

Parameters

Description

Examples

Calling Sequence

ExteriorDerivative(omega)

Parameters

omega

-

a Maple expression or a differential form

Description

• 

The exterior derivative of a differential p-form omega is a differential form d(omega) of degree p + 1.  There are two standard ways to intrinsically define the exterior derivative d.

• 

The exterior derivative can be defined directly in terms of the Lie bracket.  For a 1-form alpha and a 2-form beta this definition is:

d(alpha)(X, Y) = X(alpha(Y)) - Y(alpha(X)) - alpha([X, Y]),

d(beta)(X, Y, Z) = X(beta(Y, Z)) - Y(beta(X, Z)) + Z(beta(X, Y)) - X(beta([Y, Z])) + Y(beta([X, Z ])) - Z(beta([X, Y])),

where X, Y, Z are vector fields.  Most of the references listed on the DifferentialGeometry References page contain the general formula for the exterior derivative of a p-form.

• 

Alternatively, d can be defined uniquely as that linear operator acting on differential forms such that:

      [i]  for functions f, d(f)(X) = X(f),  where X  is any vector field;

      [ii]  d(alpha &w beta) = d(alpha) &w beta + (- 1)^p alpha &w d(beta), where alpha and beta are differential forms and p is the degree of alpha; and

      [iii] d(d(alpha)) = 0.

The explicit coordinate formulas for the exterior derivatives of a function, a 1-form and a 2-form in 3 dimensions are given in Example 1.

• 

The ExteriorDerivative command can also be applied to a list of differential forms.

• 

This command is part of the DifferentialGeometry package, and so can be used in the form ExteriorDerivative(...) only after executing the command with(DifferentialGeometry).  It can always be used in the long form DifferentialGeometry:-ExteriorDerivative.

Examples

withDifferentialGeometry:withLieAlgebras:

 

Example 1.

We initialize a 3-dimensional manifold with coordinates [x, y, z].

We use the declare command in  PDEtools to display the partial derivatives of the functions a(x, y, z), b(x, y, z) and c(x, y, z) in compact form.

DGsetupx,y,z,M:

PDEtools[declare]ax,y,z,bx,y,z,cx,y,z

ax,y,zwill now be displayed asa

bx,y,zwill now be displayed asb

cx,y,zwill now be displayed asc

(1)

The exterior derivative of a function:

ExteriorDerivativeax,y,z

axdx+aydy+azdz

(2)

The exterior derivative of a 1-form:

ω1evalDGax,y,zdx+bx,y,zdy+cx,y,zdz

ω1adx+bdy+cdz

(3)

ExteriorDerivativeω1

bx+aydxdycx+azdxdzcy+bzdydz

(4)

The exterior derivative of a 2-form:

ω2evalDGcx,y,zdx &w dybx,y,zdx &w dz+ax,y,zdy &w dz

ω2cdxdybdxdz+adydz

(5)

ExteriorDerivativeω2

ax+by+czdxdydz

(6)

 

Example 2.

By way of an example, we illustrate the fact that d^2 = 0.

ω3evalDGⅇycoszdx+lnxsinydz

ω3ⅇycoszdx+lnxsinydz

(7)

ω4ExteriorDerivativeω3

ω4ⅇycoszdxdy+ⅇysinzx+sinydxxdz+lnxcosydydz

(8)

ExteriorDerivativeω4

0dxdydz

(9)

 

Example 3.

The ExteriorDerivative command can also be applied to a list of forms or a matrix of forms.

ExteriorDerivativeydx,zdx &w dy

dxdy,dxdydz

(10)

AMatrixy &mult dx,z &mult dy,0 &mult dx,dz

Aydxzdy0dxdz

(11)

ExteriorDerivativeA

dxdydydz0dxdy0dxdy

(12)

 

Example 4.

The ExteriorDerivative command can also be used with adapted frames.  First we define an adapted coframe for M.

FrevalDGxdx+ydy+zdz,xdy+ydz,xdz

Frxdx+ydy+zdz,xdy+ydz,xdz

(13)

FrDataFrameDataFr,P

FrDatadΘ1=0,dΘ2=Θ1Θ2x2yΘ1Θ3x3+x+zΘ2Θ3x3,dΘ3=Θ1Θ3x2yΘ2Θ3x3

(14)

DGsetupFrData

frame name: P

(15)

ExteriorDerivativez

Θ3x

(16)

ExteriorDerivativexΘ1+y2Θ2

yy+1Θ1x2Θ2+y3+xzy2Θ1x3Θ3+y23x+zΘ2x3Θ3

(17)

 

Example 5.

The ExteriorDerivative command can be used with Lie algebras.

LDLieAlgebraDatax1,x3=x1,x1,x4=x2,x2,x3=x2,x2,x4=x1,x1,x2,x3,x4,Alg1

LDe1,e3=e1,e1,e4=e2,e2,e3=e2,e2,e4=e1

(18)

DGsetupLD

Lie algebra: Alg1

(19)

ExteriorDerivativeθ1

θ1θ3θ2θ4

(20)

 

Example 6. 

The ExteriorDerivative command can also be used with abstract differential forms.    

DGsetupf=dgform0,α=dgform1,β=dgform2,dα=fβ,M11

frame name: M11

(21)

ExteriorDerivativeα

fβ

(22)

ExteriorDerivativeα &w β &w β

2αβdβ+fβββ

(23)
M11 > 

See Also

DifferentialGeometry

LieBracket

DeRhamHomotopy

PDEtools[declare]

Physics[ExteriorDerivative]

Physics

 


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