Chemical: New Applications
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/category.aspx?cid=191
en-us2016 Maplesoft, A Division of Waterloo Maple Inc.Maplesoft Document SystemMon, 02 May 2016 21:25:57 GMTMon, 02 May 2016 21:25:57 GMTNew applications in the Chemical categoryhttp://www.mapleprimes.com/images/mapleapps.gifChemical: New Applications
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/category.aspx?cid=191
Analysis of a Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=153982&ref=Feed
This application analyzes the heat flows across a vapor compression refrigeration cycle, and calculates its coefficient of performance.
<BR><BR>
Additionally, the thermodynamic cycle will be plotted on a pressure-enthalpy-temperature chart.
<BR><BR>
The compressor, condenser, throttle and evaporator are analyzed in sequence with this equation, a statement of the conservation of energy,
<BR><BR>
q - w= Δh + ΔKE + ΔPE
<BR><BR>
where
<UL>
<LI>w is the work done by the component
<LI>ΔKE and ΔPE are the changes in kinetic and potential energy
<LI>Δh is the change in specific enthalpy
<LI>q is the heat transferred to the system
</UL><img src="/view.aspx?si=153982/Analysis_VCRC.png" alt="Analysis of a Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle" align="left"/>This application analyzes the heat flows across a vapor compression refrigeration cycle, and calculates its coefficient of performance.
<BR><BR>
Additionally, the thermodynamic cycle will be plotted on a pressure-enthalpy-temperature chart.
<BR><BR>
The compressor, condenser, throttle and evaporator are analyzed in sequence with this equation, a statement of the conservation of energy,
<BR><BR>
q - w= Δh + ΔKE + ΔPE
<BR><BR>
where
<UL>
<LI>w is the work done by the component
<LI>ΔKE and ΔPE are the changes in kinetic and potential energy
<LI>Δh is the change in specific enthalpy
<LI>q is the heat transferred to the system
</UL>153982Wed, 02 Mar 2016 05:00:00 ZSamir KhanSamir KhanDouble Pipe Heat Exchanger
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=153984&ref=Feed
This application models the temperature dynamics of a countercurrent double pipe heat exchanger. Three partial differential equations describe
<UL>
<LI>heat balances across the tube- and shell-side liquids,
<LI>and a heat balance across the tube-wall (taking into account the heat flow from the shell- and tube-side liquids, and conduction along the length of the tube)
</UL>
The equations are solved numerically, and the temperature profiles are plotted. The heat exchanger is assumed to be perfectly insulated. Densities, specific heat capacities, heat transfer coefficients, and thermal conductivities are assumed to be constant.<img src="/view.aspx?si=153984/Double_Pipe.png" alt="Double Pipe Heat Exchanger" align="left"/>This application models the temperature dynamics of a countercurrent double pipe heat exchanger. Three partial differential equations describe
<UL>
<LI>heat balances across the tube- and shell-side liquids,
<LI>and a heat balance across the tube-wall (taking into account the heat flow from the shell- and tube-side liquids, and conduction along the length of the tube)
</UL>
The equations are solved numerically, and the temperature profiles are plotted. The heat exchanger is assumed to be perfectly insulated. Densities, specific heat capacities, heat transfer coefficients, and thermal conductivities are assumed to be constant.153984Wed, 02 Mar 2016 05:00:00 ZSamir KhanSamir KhanEconomic Pipe Sizer
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=153985&ref=Feed
Pipework is a large part of the cost of a process plant. Plant designers need to minimize the total cost of this pipework across the lifetime of the plant. The total overall cost is a combination of individual costs relating to the
<UL>
<LI>pipe material,
<LI>installation,
<LI>maintenance,
<LI>depreciation,
<LI>energy costs for pumping,
<LI>liquid parameters,
<LI>required flowrate,
<LI>pumping efficiencies,
<LI>taxes,
<LI>and more.
</UL>
This application uses the approach described in the reference to find the pipe diameter that minimizes the total overall cost. The method involves the iterative solution of an empirical equation using Maple’s fsolve() function (the code is in the Startup code region)
<BR><BR>
Bear in mind that the empirical parameters vary as economic conditions change. Those used in this application are correct for 1998 and 2008 (as given in the reference)
<BR><BR>
Reference: "Updating the Rules for Pipe Sizing", Durand et al., Chemical Engineering, January 2010<img src="/view.aspx?si=153985/EPS.png" alt="Economic Pipe Sizer" align="left"/>Pipework is a large part of the cost of a process plant. Plant designers need to minimize the total cost of this pipework across the lifetime of the plant. The total overall cost is a combination of individual costs relating to the
<UL>
<LI>pipe material,
<LI>installation,
<LI>maintenance,
<LI>depreciation,
<LI>energy costs for pumping,
<LI>liquid parameters,
<LI>required flowrate,
<LI>pumping efficiencies,
<LI>taxes,
<LI>and more.
</UL>
This application uses the approach described in the reference to find the pipe diameter that minimizes the total overall cost. The method involves the iterative solution of an empirical equation using Maple’s fsolve() function (the code is in the Startup code region)
<BR><BR>
Bear in mind that the empirical parameters vary as economic conditions change. Those used in this application are correct for 1998 and 2008 (as given in the reference)
<BR><BR>
Reference: "Updating the Rules for Pipe Sizing", Durand et al., Chemical Engineering, January 2010153985Wed, 02 Mar 2016 05:00:00 ZSamir KhanSamir KhanInteracting Tank Resevoirs
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=153986&ref=Feed
This worksheet models liquid flow between three tanks connected by two pipes (the first pipe connecting Tank 1 and 2, and the second pipe connecting Tank 2 and 3).
<BR><BR>
The flow is opposed by pipe friction, and the level of liquid in each tank oscillates to equilibrium. Differential equations that describe the dynamic change in liquid height in each tank and a momentum balance are solved numerically.<img src="/view.aspx?si=153986/itr.png" alt="Interacting Tank Resevoirs" align="left"/>This worksheet models liquid flow between three tanks connected by two pipes (the first pipe connecting Tank 1 and 2, and the second pipe connecting Tank 2 and 3).
<BR><BR>
The flow is opposed by pipe friction, and the level of liquid in each tank oscillates to equilibrium. Differential equations that describe the dynamic change in liquid height in each tank and a momentum balance are solved numerically.153986Wed, 02 Mar 2016 05:00:00 ZSamir KhanSamir KhanAnalysis of a Refrigeration Cycle with CoolProp
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=153490&ref=Feed
<p>This application analyzes a vapor compression refrigeration cycle for the refrigerant R134a. The application calculates heat changes over the compressor, condenser, throttle and evaporator, together with the coefficient of performance. Additionally, a P-h-T chart illustrating the refrigeration cycle is plotted.</p>
<p>Thermophysical properties are provided by the open source C++ CoolProp library (<a href="http://coolprop.org/">http://coolprop.org</a>). Once compiled and linked to Maple, CoolProp lets you access the properties of pure fluids, pseudo-pure fluids, and humid air with a function call. This application comes with a CoolProp DLL for 64-bit Windows. You may need to compile CoolProp for your own environment for a compatible library. </p><img src="/view.aspx?si=153490/CoolProp_image1.jpg" alt="Analysis of a Refrigeration Cycle with CoolProp" align="left"/><p>This application analyzes a vapor compression refrigeration cycle for the refrigerant R134a. The application calculates heat changes over the compressor, condenser, throttle and evaporator, together with the coefficient of performance. Additionally, a P-h-T chart illustrating the refrigeration cycle is plotted.</p>
<p>Thermophysical properties are provided by the open source C++ CoolProp library (<a href="http://coolprop.org/">http://coolprop.org</a>). Once compiled and linked to Maple, CoolProp lets you access the properties of pure fluids, pseudo-pure fluids, and humid air with a function call. This application comes with a CoolProp DLL for 64-bit Windows. You may need to compile CoolProp for your own environment for a compatible library. </p>153490Fri, 17 Jan 2014 05:00:00 ZSamir KhanSamir KhanVan der Waals equation of state (I)
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=134131&ref=Feed
<p>This is the first of a series of Maple worksheets developed for teaching chemical thermodynamics.</p>
<p>Given the van der Waals' constants, this worksheet plots: a) the PV van der Waals' isotherms as-given by the equation, b) the PV isotherms based on Maxwell's construction, c) the compressibility factor isotherms based on the low pressure series expansion, and d) the compressibility factor isotherms based on Maxwell's construction. All procedures are independent and were developed to work with the classic interface.</p><img src="/view.aspx?si=134131/436827\41b8ef0a763a603085145e0cf8cd9b47.gif" alt="Van der Waals equation of state (I)" align="left"/><p>This is the first of a series of Maple worksheets developed for teaching chemical thermodynamics.</p>
<p>Given the van der Waals' constants, this worksheet plots: a) the PV van der Waals' isotherms as-given by the equation, b) the PV isotherms based on Maxwell's construction, c) the compressibility factor isotherms based on the low pressure series expansion, and d) the compressibility factor isotherms based on Maxwell's construction. All procedures are independent and were developed to work with the classic interface.</p>134131Sat, 12 May 2012 04:00:00 ZChristian Viales MonteroChristian Viales MonteroAnalysis of basic equations of state (II)
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=134136&ref=Feed
<p>This is the second of a series of Maple worksheets developed for teaching chemical thermodynamics.</p>
<p>Given a two-constant equation of state (the worksheet includes the most common), this worksheet calculates its critical point, reduced form, volumetric coefficients, Boyle's temperature, virial expansion and internal pressure.</p><img src="/view.aspx?si=134136/436839\ae00ea34ed62fd64822a9ee2652b3c1c.gif" alt="Analysis of basic equations of state (II)" align="left"/><p>This is the second of a series of Maple worksheets developed for teaching chemical thermodynamics.</p>
<p>Given a two-constant equation of state (the worksheet includes the most common), this worksheet calculates its critical point, reduced form, volumetric coefficients, Boyle's temperature, virial expansion and internal pressure.</p>134136Sat, 12 May 2012 04:00:00 ZChristian Viales MonteroChristian Viales MonteroWater Hammer
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=129503&ref=Feed
<p>When a valve at the end of a pipeline suddenly closes, a pressure surge hits the valve and travels along the pipeline. This process is modeled by two PDEs. The PDEs can be discretized along the spatial dimension to give a set of ODEs. This application, for a given set of parameters, solves the resulting ODEs numerically and plots the pressure dynamics at the valve.</p><img src="/view.aspx?si=129503/waterhammer_sm.jpg" alt="Water Hammer" align="left"/><p>When a valve at the end of a pipeline suddenly closes, a pressure surge hits the valve and travels along the pipeline. This process is modeled by two PDEs. The PDEs can be discretized along the spatial dimension to give a set of ODEs. This application, for a given set of parameters, solves the resulting ODEs numerically and plots the pressure dynamics at the valve.</p>129503Mon, 09 Jan 2012 05:00:00 ZMaplesoftMaplesoftThe Three Reservoir Problem
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=119851&ref=Feed
Three reservoirs at different elevations are connected through a piping network at a single point, with an outflow from the common junction. This application will calculate the flowrates, flow directions and head at the common junction. This is a classic problem in hydraulic engineering. Through an understanding of the concepts associated therein, many hydraulic challenges can be solved.<img src="/view.aspx?si=119851/ScreenShot001.jpg" alt="The Three Reservoir Problem" align="left"/>Three reservoirs at different elevations are connected through a piping network at a single point, with an outflow from the common junction. This application will calculate the flowrates, flow directions and head at the common junction. This is a classic problem in hydraulic engineering. Through an understanding of the concepts associated therein, many hydraulic challenges can be solved.119851Thu, 12 May 2011 04:00:00 ZMaplesoftMaplesoftCountercurrent Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=119402&ref=Feed
This application models the temperature dynamics of a countercurrent double pipe heat exchanger. Three partial differential equations are derived from heat balances across the tube- and shell-side liquids, and the tube wall (accounting for heat flow from the shell- and tube-side liquids, and conduction along the length of the tube).
The equations are solved numerically, and the temperature profiles are plotted. The heat exchanger is assumed to be perfectly insulated. Densities, specific heat capacities, heat transfer coefficients, and thermal conductivities are assumed to be constant.<img src="/view.aspx?si=119402/381585\tube.png" alt="Countercurrent Double Pipe Heat Exchanger" align="left"/>This application models the temperature dynamics of a countercurrent double pipe heat exchanger. Three partial differential equations are derived from heat balances across the tube- and shell-side liquids, and the tube wall (accounting for heat flow from the shell- and tube-side liquids, and conduction along the length of the tube).
The equations are solved numerically, and the temperature profiles are plotted. The heat exchanger is assumed to be perfectly insulated. Densities, specific heat capacities, heat transfer coefficients, and thermal conductivities are assumed to be constant.119402Thu, 28 Apr 2011 04:00:00 ZMaplesoftMaplesoftDouble Pipe Countercurrent Heat Exchanger
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=100377&ref=Feed
In this model, water on the shell-side heats milk on the tube-side in a countercurrent double-pipe heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is modeled via a heat balance on a discretized control volume, with the system equations implemented in a custom component. A full derivation of the system equations is given in an attached document (look under Project>Attachments>Documents). Heat transfer coefficients are given by the Dittus-Boelter correlation, and the temperature variation of the milk viscosity is accounted for.<img src="/view.aspx?si=100377/sim_icon.jpg" alt="Double Pipe Countercurrent Heat Exchanger" align="left"/>In this model, water on the shell-side heats milk on the tube-side in a countercurrent double-pipe heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is modeled via a heat balance on a discretized control volume, with the system equations implemented in a custom component. A full derivation of the system equations is given in an attached document (look under Project>Attachments>Documents). Heat transfer coefficients are given by the Dittus-Boelter correlation, and the temperature variation of the milk viscosity is accounted for.100377Wed, 22 Dec 2010 05:00:00 ZMaplesoftMaplesoftPlotting Capabilities for Engineers
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=6979&ref=Feed
Maple contains an extensive set of visualization tools and options, including many plots and options commonly used by engineers. This Tips & Techniques document demonstrates how to create and customize your plots using interactive techniques and command options, with emphasis on options used in engineering contexts.<img src="/view.aspx?si=6979/thumb.gif" alt="Plotting Capabilities for Engineers" align="left"/>Maple contains an extensive set of visualization tools and options, including many plots and options commonly used by engineers. This Tips & Techniques document demonstrates how to create and customize your plots using interactive techniques and command options, with emphasis on options used in engineering contexts.6979Thu, 04 Dec 2008 04:00:00 ZMaplesoftMaplesoftQuality Control of a Paint Production Process
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=6589&ref=Feed
Quality control in terms of paint production consists of sampling at regular intervals to ensure that the end
product meets a set of target criteria, which include desired yield and concentration levels. These criteria are
determined by developing a model to accurately represent the reaction kinetics of the system. With a highly
accurate model of the chemical process one can quickly identify and correct sources of error during the
production process.<img src="/view.aspx?si=6589/thumb.gif" alt="Quality Control of a Paint Production Process" align="left"/>Quality control in terms of paint production consists of sampling at regular intervals to ensure that the end
product meets a set of target criteria, which include desired yield and concentration levels. These criteria are
determined by developing a model to accurately represent the reaction kinetics of the system. With a highly
accurate model of the chemical process one can quickly identify and correct sources of error during the
production process.6589Thu, 28 Aug 2008 00:00:00 ZMaplesoftMaplesoftInteracting Tank Reservoirs
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=4828&ref=Feed
This worksheet models the draining of liquid from one tank into into another tank through a connecting pipe. The flow is opposed by pipe friction, and the level of liquid in each tank oscillates to an equilibrium. Differential equations that describe the dynamic change in liquid height in each tank and a momentum balance are solved numerically.<img src="/view.aspx?si=4828/image.php.gif" alt="Interacting Tank Reservoirs" align="left"/>This worksheet models the draining of liquid from one tank into into another tank through a connecting pipe. The flow is opposed by pipe friction, and the level of liquid in each tank oscillates to an equilibrium. Differential equations that describe the dynamic change in liquid height in each tank and a momentum balance are solved numerically.4828Wed, 18 Oct 2006 00:00:00 ZDr. Samir KhanDr. Samir KhanDynamic Equivalent Structures
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=4826&ref=Feed
This worksheet compares the eigenvalues of a structure with Rayleigh damping with a structure with an arbitrary discrete damper. It also compare mechanic structures with different types of damping and the strategy to calculation of the solution at an example of a structure with two degrees of freedom.<img src="/view.aspx?si=4826/Dynamic.jpg" alt="Dynamic Equivalent Structures" align="left"/>This worksheet compares the eigenvalues of a structure with Rayleigh damping with a structure with an arbitrary discrete damper. It also compare mechanic structures with different types of damping and the strategy to calculation of the solution at an example of a structure with two degrees of freedom.4826Thu, 12 Oct 2006 00:00:00 ZHarald KammererHarald KammererAutomatic Optimization of Controller
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=1752&ref=Feed
A cold oil stream is heated in a stirred tank. The dynamic change in temperature in the tank is modelled by an ordinary differential equation, derived via a heat balance
The temperature of the liquid in the tank is driven to a set point via a PI controller, which alters the heat added to the system. The optimium controller gains are found by minimising an objective function that describes how far the actual temperature profile is from a user-defined profile. Additionally, overshoot is attenuated via a penalty multiplier to the objective function.
This application highlights two Maple computational features
- Numeric solution of differential equations
- Non-linear optimisation<img src="/view.aspx?si=1752/AutomaticOptimisationControllerGains_2.gif" alt="Automatic Optimization of Controller" align="left"/>A cold oil stream is heated in a stirred tank. The dynamic change in temperature in the tank is modelled by an ordinary differential equation, derived via a heat balance
The temperature of the liquid in the tank is driven to a set point via a PI controller, which alters the heat added to the system. The optimium controller gains are found by minimising an objective function that describes how far the actual temperature profile is from a user-defined profile. Additionally, overshoot is attenuated via a penalty multiplier to the objective function.
This application highlights two Maple computational features
- Numeric solution of differential equations
- Non-linear optimisation1752Fri, 16 Jun 2006 00:00:00 ZDr. Samir KhanDr. Samir KhanFlow Between Two Tanks Assisted by a Pump
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=1750&ref=Feed
A pump transfers from one tank to another, with check valves placed on either side of the pump and each tank is open to the atmosphere. This worksheet calculates the flowrate in the pipe by solving the Bernoulli equation for the system, taking into account the head added by the pump, and the head loss due to pipe friction and fittings. Friction factors are calculated using the standard equation for friction in laminar flow, or the Colebrook-White equation for friction in turbulent flow. A number of physical parameters can be specified, including the pipe roughness and the head loss coefficients for the valves.<img src="/view.aspx?si=1750/thumb.gif" alt="Flow Between Two Tanks Assisted by a Pump" align="left"/>A pump transfers from one tank to another, with check valves placed on either side of the pump and each tank is open to the atmosphere. This worksheet calculates the flowrate in the pipe by solving the Bernoulli equation for the system, taking into account the head added by the pump, and the head loss due to pipe friction and fittings. Friction factors are calculated using the standard equation for friction in laminar flow, or the Colebrook-White equation for friction in turbulent flow. A number of physical parameters can be specified, including the pipe roughness and the head loss coefficients for the valves.1750Mon, 12 Jun 2006 04:00:00 ZSamir KhanSamir KhanProfessional Tips & Techniques: Using Scientific Constants in Maple
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=1724&ref=Feed
Maple includes an extensive ScientificConstants package that provides access to the values of various constant physical quantities.
Such values can be used to solve equations in fields such as chemistry and physics. The ScientificConstants package also provides the units for each of the constant values, allowing for greater understanding of the equation as well as units matching for error checking of the solution.
The quantities available in the ScientificConstants package are divided into two distinct categories.
1. physical constants
2. properties of the chemical elements (and their isotopes)
This document will highlight the uses of the ScientificConstants package in Maple, and provides some examples of its use.<img src="/view.aspx?si=1724/TTMarApr.jpg" alt="Professional Tips & Techniques: Using Scientific Constants in Maple" align="left"/>Maple includes an extensive ScientificConstants package that provides access to the values of various constant physical quantities.
Such values can be used to solve equations in fields such as chemistry and physics. The ScientificConstants package also provides the units for each of the constant values, allowing for greater understanding of the equation as well as units matching for error checking of the solution.
The quantities available in the ScientificConstants package are divided into two distinct categories.
1. physical constants
2. properties of the chemical elements (and their isotopes)
This document will highlight the uses of the ScientificConstants package in Maple, and provides some examples of its use.1724Mon, 27 Mar 2006 00:00:00 ZMaplesoftMaplesoftReversible, exothermic, gas phase reaction in a catalytic reactor
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=1347&ref=Feed
Reversible, Exothermic, Gas Phase Reaction in a Catalytic Reactor<img src="/view.aspx?si=1347//applications/images/app_image_blank_lg.jpg" alt="Reversible, exothermic, gas phase reaction in a catalytic reactor" align="left"/>Reversible, Exothermic, Gas Phase Reaction in a Catalytic Reactor1347Fri, 22 Jul 2005 00:00:00 ZRoss TaylorRoss TaylorBinary Distillation with the McCabe-Thiele Method
http://www.maplesoft.com/applications/view.aspx?SID=1640&ref=Feed
Binary fractional distillation is a means of separating two liquid components via a distillation column (which contains a number of trays, or stages). It's a concept encountered by virtually every Chemical & Process Engineering student. This application calculates the required number of theoretical stages for a set of specified operating parameters via the McCabe-Thiele method. It plots the classic McCabe-Thiele diagram and evaluates the minimum and actual reflux ratio, and the thermodynamic state of the feed.<img src="/view.aspx?si=1640/McCabe-ThieleDistillation_10.gif" alt="Binary Distillation with the McCabe-Thiele Method" align="left"/>Binary fractional distillation is a means of separating two liquid components via a distillation column (which contains a number of trays, or stages). It's a concept encountered by virtually every Chemical & Process Engineering student. This application calculates the required number of theoretical stages for a set of specified operating parameters via the McCabe-Thiele method. It plots the classic McCabe-Thiele diagram and evaluates the minimum and actual reflux ratio, and the thermodynamic state of the feed.1640Wed, 13 Jul 2005 00:00:00 ZDr. Samir KhanDr. Samir Khan